The prison sentence is the sanction: it holds an individual accountable for their actions and protects society.
For UNODC a model prison is a prison managed on the basis of justice and humanity in which prisoners spend their time engaged in purposeful activities, such as education and vocational training, which will help them with their social reintegration following release.
Crime rates have declined substantially since the early s, but studies suggest that rising imprisonment has not played a major role in this trend. Effective prison reform is dependent on the improvement and rationalisation of criminal justice policies, including crime prevention and sentencing policies, and on the care and treatment made available to vulnerable groups in the community.
For more than a decade, the political climate of criminal justice reform has been evolving toward evidence-based, commonsense approaches to public safety.
The second being the ethical problems that can and have risen from the privatization of prisons. Black men are six times as likely to be incarcerated as white men and Hispanic men are more than twice as likely to be incarcerated as non-Hispanic white men.
Research shows that crime starts to peak in the mid- to late- teenage years and begins to decline when individuals are in their mids.