Report on foreign currency risks exposure
Excessive debt, however, can impede lucrative projects from being implemented. The Banco Central do Brasil maintains close control of the Brazilian currency market through Sisbacen, the Central Bank's information system.
This means that speculation increased the exchange exposure of firms in as we would imagine. In this case, multinational firms should be more likely to use a hedge and less likely to speculate. In the next section we will show our estimations of our two step regressions methodology presented above.
The data show that a great number of corporations that used foreign exchange derivatives had debt in a foreign currency.
Brazil is renowned for its range of regulatory and legal requirements, although some of these protectionist features have helped to insulate the country from the worst effects of the recent global financial crisis.
In response to this, corporations increased their demand for foreign exchange derivatives as Oliveira shows. In these years the foreign exchange rate was much less volatile and average depreciation much less significant than in Based on this information, the Brazilian Central Bank solicited 50 authorized financial institutions that operate in the foreign exchange derivatives to inform the name of all the companies with which they signed contracts of foreign exchange swap from January to December as well as the notional amount, currency and maturity of these contracts.
The sum of the coefficients of the speculation interaction term with operational exposure for the more complete specification is 0. The literature has identified several market imperfections or frictions that may justify the use of foreign exchange derivatives for hedging or speculative reasons so as to add market value to firms. There is growing empirical evidence on the use of foreign exchange derivatives. For instance, a service sector is less likely to have inventory swings and exchange-rate changes as compared to a large consumer sector. This change increased the foreign exchange exposure of corporations in Brazil. Multinational corporations can be interested in protecting the interests of shareholders in the origin country against fluctuations of the nominal exchange rate, even without possessing export revenues, import expenses or debt in dollars. To realize the domestic value of its foreign-denominated cash flows, the firm must exchange, or translate, the foreign currency for domestic. While translation risk may not affect a firm's cash flows, it could have a significant impact on a firm's reported earnings and therefore its stock price. Given this priority, the shareholders do not have incentives to contribute resources for investments whose returns-because of the highly indebted situation-will likely be used in the payment of debt. In the currency swap contracts, the investor in the long position trades interest in BRL for dollar-denominated interest; this implies gains losses with depreciation appreciation of the exchange rate. Contingent risk[ edit ] A firm has contingent risk when bidding for foreign projects, negotiating other contracts, or handling direct foreign investments. Subsidiaries can be characterized as either an integrated or a self-sustaining foreign entity. The nature of their activities, makes these corporations follow regularly the foreign exchange market, maintaining close contact with agents that are probably the first to detect changes in the trends of the nominal exchange rate dealers of foreign currency, for example. The fact that currency swaps were the main instrument of foreign exchange derivatives used by corporations can be explained in part by simply observing the data. As the Table shows, the p-values of the F statistics of the test of the joint significance do not reject the overall significance of the variables.
based on 59 review