The benefits of population control policies for environmental sustainability

sustainable population growth rate

Advances in crop yields have come about primarily by increasing the plant populations per hectare and by increasing the ratio of grain to straw in individual plants.

Traditional production theory implies that if the price of a factor input is zero or close to zero that factor will be used until the value of its marginal product approaches zero. In the absence of more focused research efforts, it seems likely that the promised gains in agricultural productivity from biotechnology will continue to recede.

effects of population growth on sustainable development

At the same time, women need the means to make choices: family planning and other reproductive health services. Direct evidence that family planning programs reduce unmet need and fertility comes from experiments such as the one undertaken in the Matlab district of Bangladesh.

Population growth and sustainability

The demand for a resource that is priced below its social cost will grow more rapidly than it would in a situation in which substitution possibilities can occur only along a "given" production surface. The second force is the growth of us—that is, human population. Gains from these sources will be crop, animal, and location specific. Scientific and Technical Constraints It seems apparent that the gains in agricultural production required over the next quarter century will be achieved with much greater difficulty than in the immediate past. Over this period we have seen a transition from primary concern with the material basis for agricultural and industrial development to the impact of the intensification of agricultural and industrial activity on the environment—from a concern about the material basis of production to the "sink" capacity of the environment. The population of sub-Saharan Africa is projected to increase from million in to 1. These constraints are most severe in those areas that have already achieved the highest levels of productivity—as in Western Europe, North America, and parts of East Asia. It is unlikely, and perhaps undesirable, that all of these areas should become important components of the global food supply system. Calls to empower women through family planning also ring hollow when the deeper causes of poverty and gender discrimination are ignored in favor of silver-bullet solutions. Advances in conventional technology will be inadequate to sustain the demands that will be placed on agriculture as we move into the second decade of the next century and beyond. This situation is the worst among children and in Africa, where in 15 countries 35 per cent of the population is chronically hungry.

There is a need for the establishment of substantial basic biological research and training capacity in the tropical developing countries. Powerful population and environment advocacy organizations primarily in the U. Increasing diversion of grains to biodiesel, ethanol, and meat production additionally decreases supplies available for human consumption Brown Nations can raise women's status by educating girls, by enforcing laws that prohibit child marriage, and by improving women's access to credit, land, jobs, and training.

population and sustainable development in india

The system of legal and economic institutions that govern the use of common property resources has failed to evolve in a manner consistent with a the rising demand for capacity to receive and assimilate the residuals associated with commodity production and consumption and 9 Boyce finds that in Bangladesh, where the institutional environment is severely biased by market imperfections and unequal distribution of economic and political resources, that differences in population density and population growth rates influence the rate and direction of technical change in a manner consistent with the induced technical change hypothesis pp.

Reproductive health specialists believe that at least million women in developing countries want, but do not have, the health care and contraceptive choices their richer sisters have long enjoyed.

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Population policies, programmes and the environment