The new drugs to treat hypertension essay
On average, people with uncontrolled hypertension are:Seven times more likely to have a stroke.
New approaches in the treatment of hypertension
Other side-effects include oedema, headache, incontinence, and drowsiness. They are used in patients intolerant of CCBs and in patients with heart failure, or at risk of heart failure. Blood pressure goals vary depending on your age and presence of other medical conditions. A graphical presentation of pooled summary findings is shown in Figure 17 for all cause mortality, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction MI and fatal or non-fatal stroke. The choice of add-on therapy, which may be required later in up to two-thirds of patients, is not as clearly defined. Diabetol Metab Syndr. American Heart Association website. Diarrhoea is a specific side-effect to higher doses of DRIs. Included are comparisons and outcomes in which inter-study heterogeneity was considered too great to include the pooled effect size in the evidence statements above and hence these should be treated with caution. When safety and efficacy are equal the lowest cost drug should be prescribed. Comparative convenience Ensuring long-term adherence to medication is one of the major problems in managing hypertension. Placebo controlled trials An overview of key design characteristics of the 20 placebo controlled trials identified is shown in Table 50 22 trials are tabulated since two trials had additional treatment arms. Reducing excess weight, salt and alcohol intake coupled with increased exercise all reduce blood pressure. The potential benefits of this approach may outweigh the risks, provided care is taken to maintain euvolaemia and episodes of hypotension are managed with volume expansion and vasopressors.
Specific indications for their use in secondary hypertension include labetalol for pre-eclampsia and phentolamine in the perioperative management of phaeochromocytoma.
Placebo controlled trials An overview of key design characteristics of the 20 placebo controlled trials identified is shown in Table 50 22 trials are tabulated since two trials had additional treatment arms.
However, there are no data on long-term outcomes using the very low doses of diuretic now recommended daily doses of hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone and indapamide not exceeding Some of the antihypertensive effect of thiazides can be attributed to their diuretic effect leading to a reduction in blood volume.
This contrasts with non-cardioselective drugs such as propranolol and sotalol.
Hypertension is a type of cardiovascular disease that is a primary risk of health disease and stroke, which are considered to be the leading cause of death worldwide.
Seldom was the method of randomisation or steps to conceal allocation from investigators or patients adequately described, although this reflects contemporary standards of reporting.
based on 74 review